Tag Archives: TMP


People who have read my blog, have read my article, of been at any of my public talks know about the problems of the unix $HOME and $TEMP facilities. MinorFs, a set of least authority file-systems aimed to solve this problem in a relatively ‘pure’ way. That is, it was a single granularity, single paradigm solution that gave pseudo persistent processes their own private storage that could be decomposed and delegated to other pseudo persistent processes.

A few years after I released MinorFs and a few years after I wrote a Linux Journal article about MinorFs, although its painful to admit, its time to come to the conclusion that that my attempts to make the world see the advantages of the purity of model that the stack AppArmor/MinorFs/E provided has failed.

At the same time, the problem with a $HOME and $TEMP directory that are shared between all the programs a user may run is becoming a bigger and bigger problem.  On one side we have real value being stored in the users $HOME dir by programs like bitcoin. On the other side we have HTML5 that relies more and more on the browser being able to reliably store  essential parts and information of rich internet application.

The realization of these two facts made me come to an important conclusion: Its time for major changes to MinorFs.  Now I had two options. Do I patch a bunch of changes on top of the existing Perl code base, or do I start from scratch. In the past I had tried to get MinorFs accepted as an AppArmor package in Ubuntu. At that point I ran into the problem that MinorFs had rather exotic perl modules as dependencies.  So if I ever want a new version of MinorFs to be accepted as a companion package for AppArmor, I would have to rewrite it quite a bit to not use those exotic dependencies. Add to this the major changes needed to get MinorFs as practical as it gets without compromising security, I had to come to the conclusion that there was little to no benefit in re-using the old MinorFs code.  This made me have to change my earlier assertion to: Its time to write a new version of MinorFs from scratch.

So what should this new version of MinorFs do in order to make it more practical? What should I do to help ang det it packaged in the major distributions that package AppArmor? The second question is easy, be carefull with dependencies. The first question however turned out to be less simple.

I have a very persistent tendency to strive for purity of model and purity of design. But after a few years of seeing that such purity can lead to failure to adopt, I had to take a major leap and convince myself that where purity gets in the way of likelihood to be adopted, purity had to make way.

After a lot of thinking I managed to concentrate all of the impurity into a single place. A place that allowed for configuration by the user in such a way that a purity sensitive user, packagers and administrators could create a relatively pure system by way of the config, while practically inclined users, packagers and administrators could just ignore purity al together. The place where I concentrated the impurity is the persistence id service. This service that didn’t exist in the old MinorFs maps process-id’s to persistence-id’s, but it does this in a way where one process might get a persistence-id that implies a whole different level of granularity than the persistence-id an other process maps to. Where the old MinorFs had only one level of granularity (the pseudo persistent process), MinorFs2 allows different processes to exist at different granularity levels according to the needs and possibilities of their code-base.

This is the base of the first of my practical approaches. It suffers one program that requires the existing user level granularity to co-exist with for example an other program that benefits from living at the finest granularity level that MinorFs2 provides.  I tried to come up with every potentially usable granularity level I could come up with. In practice some of these levels might turn out to be useless or unneeded, but from a practical viewpoint its better to have to much than to have the one missing that would be the best fit for a particular program.

So what would be the most important practical implication of allowing multiple granularities down to user level granularity? The big goal would be : Allow to simply and effectively  replace the usage of the normal $HOME and $TEMP with the usage of MinorFs2.

We should make it possible to mount MinorFs2 filesystems at /tmp and /home and have all software function normally, but without having to worry about malware or hackers with access to the same user id gaining access to their secrets, or being able to compromise their integrity.

This practical goal completely ignores the benefits of decomposition and delegation, but it does make your computer a much safer place, while in theory still allowing application developers an upgrade path to fine grained least authority.

An other practical choice I had to make was replacing the use of symbolic links with  using overlay file-systems for minorfs2_home_fs and minorfs2_temp_fs and dissalow  ‘raw’ access to minorfs2_cap_fs to unconfined processes.  I won’t get into the details about what this entails, but basicaly I had to abandon the golden rule that states: ‘don’t prohibit what you cant enforce‘.  Unconfined processes have access to the guts of the processes running under the same uid. This makes them capable of stealing the sparse capabilities that MinorFs uses. I took the practical approach to:

  • Limit the use of raw sparse caps to delegation and attenuation (less to steal)
  • Disallow unconfined processes from directly using sparse caps

This is an other practical issue that makes stuff a bit impure. In the pure world there would be no unconfined processes in a pure world, no way to steal sparse caps from the guts of an other process. So what do we do, we break a golden rule and close the gap as good as we can. Knowing that:

  • If the unconfined malicious process can convince a confined process to proxy for it shall be able tu use the stolen sparse cap.
  • If a non malicious unconfined process wants to use a sparse cap it can’t.

It hurts having to make such impure design decisions,  it feels like I’m doing something bad,  badly plugging a hole by breaking legitimate use cases.  I hope that the pain of  the practical approach will work out being worth  it  and I’ll be able to create something with a much higher adoption rate than the old MinorFs.


Programing language wishlist

My previous blog post was about garbage collection being anti-productive. Its my strong opinion that with respect to resource management, Java has got it completely wrong, C++ got it completely right, and languages with deterministic memory management (reference counting) like cPython come in as a good second to C++. I have to litle knowledge of C# to truly judge the productivity and scalability properties of its hybrid resource management model that at first glance seems to be a quite a bit better than Java Basically. I would say (taking into respect what I heard and read about C#) with respect to resource management:

  • +2 for C++
  • +1 for python
  • +/- for C#
  • -2 for Java

But I will be the first to admit that Java,  and especially its more secure little brother Joe-E, has many merits on other fronts, while C++ definitely has its weaknesses. Looking at the wide range of programing languages available, and looking at their features and miss-features,  there doesn’t seem to be a single language that doesn’t have at least one ingredient that is incompatible with my personal taste. This made me think that if I could order a programing language the way I can order a pizza: Tuna pizza,  double garlic, pickled green peppers , hold the onions.  What toping would I choose for my programming language? Its likely that my taste in programing language is just as disgusting to you as my taste  in pizza is to many of my friends 😉 My priorities basically are scalable high productivity and high integrity, if you have other priorities, your pizza will likely get quite a different combination of toppings.

Perl’s expressiveness and built-in regular expression support.

While I try to not use Perl anymore, I started my career as a Unix system administrator doing a lot of Perl, and have done many smaller and mid sized projects in Perl. While I’m no longer the big Perl fan I used to be, Perl expressiveness  keeps pulling me back to Perl if I need to build something small in a hurry. No language beats Perl with respect to how little code or how little time it takes to build something when in a hurry. Combined with the built-in regex support that is really integrated well in the language, this is a toping I would love to have onh my programing language pizza.

C++ its full encapsulation of resources, add some automated  resource management.

As I showed in my previous blog post on resource management, C++ RAII allows resources to be fully encapsulated without braking encapsulation or burdening polymorphism. This property in C++ comes at the price of not having automated memory management. I’d like to have my cake and eat it to here. C++ its full encapsulation of resources, but with some more syntactic sugar for RAII to further boost productivity.

C++ its generics and TMP support

Nothing boosts productivity like being smart about the  ‘Dont Repeat Yourself’ or DRY principle. Nothing spells DRY like C++ generics and template meta programing in C++.

C++/Python’s operator overloading

While operator overloading to many is just syntactic sugar, it to me is more like syntactic honey, making things do down much smoother in many cases.  Function objects (objects overloading the ‘()’ operator) are a great alternative to old-fashioned C callback functions.   In C++ cast operators can safe you much work when refactoring. Operator overloading on their own will boost your productivity, but when combined with generics this boost is multiplied.

Pythons Strong, Safe but property based type system.

Strong and safe type systems are great, but sometimes they get in your way. In python a strong and safe type system is combined with property based compatibility.

Message passing concurrency only, safe the raw threads.

Where shared mutable state can get you into trouble, you haven’t seen any real trouble until you have tried doing large scale development with raw threads. Raw threads give you shared state concurrency with all the troubles that sharing state brings with it. These problems can really kill your productivity and create hard to track down bugs. Message passing concurrency gives a less problematic alternative.  I would like my ideal language not to supply me with raw threads, but hide these (and lock free containers) these behind an abstraction layer that  provides message passing concurrency instead.

No class variable support.

As with shared state concurrency, class variables are shared essentially shared mutable state and shared mutable state is something that can be tricky to work with. There are a few basic rules for working with shared mutable state that come from object capability theory and from basics about testability of code. In essence class variables are not compatible with these rules.

No pointer arithmetic support

This for me is the thing I dislike most about C++. Pointer arithmetic will get you into trouble. Its a tempting thing to use in C++, and thats why I don’t want it in my ideal language.  Its like one of those fattening ingredients on your pizza that you know is bad for you, but you have a graving for it so you take it.

No reflection or typeof

Reflection and typeof will let you get away with bad design, it will let you be more productive for the short haul, but bad design will in the end make you regret you took a shortcut and will make you pay for taking the shortcut many times over.

Fully ocap with persistent object support

The E-language, a language that I have used for smaller personal projects (Its quite impossible to convince my co-workers about this great but exotic language is worth investing serious time in), combines being fully OCAP (a sane subset of OO for building high integrity systems) and has support for persistent applications that survive system reboots without loosing state. The E-Language is fully compatible with my MinorFs project and allows for fitting least authority design into a multi granularity system design from the OS level up.  My Ideal language would take quite a few things from E. Its an amazing litle language that has gotten way to little press.

Co-worker compatible

A language could have all the ingredients above, a real project requires multiple people working on it. This means that the ideal language, other than E should be compatible with the often conservative views of co-workers with respect to investing in new technology.  The ideal language should be similar enough to languages my co-workers know (Java,C++,Python,C#,Delphi,Perl) to be acceptable to the conservative mind.

The above list to a point is just personal taste, but I believe its most about personal taste in priorities that for me are productivity and high integrity. My ideal language would allow me and my co-workers to write large scale high integrity systems with the highest possible productivity.